## Abstract

Efficient solution strategies for wave propagation problems with complex geometries are essential in many engineering fields. Immersed boundary methods simplify mesh generation by embedding the domain of interest into an extended domain that is easy to mesh, introducing the challenge of dealing with cells that intersect the domain boundary. We consider the finite cell method that extends the weak form from the physical into the extended domain, multiplied by a small value, to stabilize badly cut cells. Combined with explicit time integration methods, the presence of finite cells with very little support in the physical domain results in tiny critical time step sizes. While the finite cell stabilization limits how small the critical time step size can become, this limit is still restrictive for many applications. Explicit transient analyses commonly use the spectral element method due to its natural way of obtaining diagonal mass matrices through nodal lumping. The resulting method is very efficient since nodal lumping renders the solution of the equation systems trivial while not reducing the accuracy or the critical time step size. The combination of the spectral element and finite cell methods is called the spectral cell method. Unfortunately, a direct application of nodal lumping in the spectral cell method is impossible due to the special quadrature necessary to treat the discontinuous integrand inside the cut cells. The existing approaches to lump the mass matrices of cut cells significantly reduce the accuracy of the approximation. We analyze an implicit-explicit (IMEX) time integration method to exploit the advantages of the nodal lumping scheme for uncut cells on one side and the unconditional stability of implicit time integration schemes for cut cells on the other. In this hybrid, immersed Newmark IMEX approach, we use explicit second-order central differences to integrate the uncut degrees of freedom that lead to a diagonal block in the mass matrix and an implicit trapezoidal Newmark method to integrate the remaining degrees of freedom (those supported by at least one cut cell). The immersed Newmark IMEX approach preserves the high-order convergence rates and the geometric flexibility of the finite cell method while retaining the efficiency of the nodal lumping scheme for uncut cells without compromising the critical time step size. We analyze a simple system of spring-coupled masses to highlight some of the essential characteristics of Newmark IMEX time integration. We then solve the scalar wave equation with immersed boundaries on two- and three-dimensional examples with significant geometric complexity to show that our approach is more efficient than state-of-the-art time integration schemes when comparing accuracy and runtime. While we focus on the finite and spectral cell methods, we expect other immersed methods to benefit equally from Newmark IMEX time integration.

Originalsprache | Englisch |
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Seiten (von - bis) | 1-13 |

Seitenumfang | 13 |

Fachzeitschrift | Computers and Mathematics with Applications |

Jahrgang | 163 |

DOIs | |

Publikationsstatus | Veröffentlicht - 1 Juni 2024 |