Efficacy, acceptability, and tolerability of antipsychotics in treatment-resistant schizophrenia: A network meta-analysis

Myrto T. Samara, Markus Dold, Myrsini Gianatsi, Adriani Nikolakopoulou, Bartosz Helfer, Georgia Salanti, Stefan Leucht

Publikation: Beitrag in FachzeitschriftÜbersichtsartikelBegutachtung

222 Zitate (Scopus)


IMPORTANCE In treatment-resistant schizophrenia, clozapine is considered the standard treatment. However, clozapine use has restrictions owing to its many adverse effects. Moreover, an increasing number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of other antipsychotics have been published. OBJECTIVE To integrate all the randomized evidence from the available antipsychotics used for treatment-resistant schizophrenia by performing a network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Biosis, PsycINFO, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials,World Health Organization International Trial Registry, and clinicaltrials.gov were searched up to June 30, 2014. STUDY SELECTION At least 2 independent reviewers selected published and unpublished single-and double-blind RCTs in treatment-resistant schizophrenia (any study-defined criterion) that compared any antipsychotic (at any dose and in any form of administration) with another antipsychotic or placebo. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS At least 2 independent reviewers extracted all data into standard forms and assessed the quality of all included trials with the Cochrane Collaboration's risk-of-bias tool. Datawere pooled using a random-effects model in a Bayesian setting. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcomewas efficacy as measured by overall change in symptoms of schizophrenia. Secondary outcomes included change in positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, categorical response to treatment, dropouts for any reason and for inefficacy of treatment, and important adverse events. RESULTS Forty blinded RCTs with 5172 unique participants (71.5%men; mean [SD] age, 38.8 [3.7] years)were included in the analysis. Fewsignificant differenceswere found in all outcomes. In the primary outcome (reported as standardized mean difference; 95%credible interval), olanzapinewas more effective than quetiapine (-0.29; -0.56 to -0.02), haloperidol (-0. 29; -0.44 to -0.13), and sertindole (-0.46; -0.80 to -0.06); clozapinewas more effective than haloperidol (-0.22; -0.38 to -0.07) and sertindole (-0.40; -0.74 to -0.04); and risperidonewas more effective than sertindole (-0.32; -0.63 to -0.01). A pattern of superiority for olanzapine, clozapine, and risperidonewas seen in other efficacy outcomes, but resultswere not consistent and effect sizeswere usually small. In addition, relatively fewRCTswere available for antipsychotics other than clozapine, haloperidol, olanzapine, and risperidone. The most surprising findingwas that clozapinewas not significantly better than most other drugs. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Insufficient evidence exists on which antipsychotic is more efficacious for patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, and blinded RCTs-in contrast to unblinded, randomized effectiveness studies-provide little evidence of the superiority of clozapine compared with other second-generation antipsychotics. Future clozapine studies with high doses and patients with extremely treatment-refractory schizophrenia might be most promising to change the current evidence.

Seiten (von - bis)199-210
FachzeitschriftJAMA Psychiatry
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - März 2016
Extern publiziertJa


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