TY - JOUR

T1 - Decomposition of the drag force in steady and oscillatory flow through a hexagonal sphere pack

AU - Unglehrt, Lukas

AU - Manhart, Michael

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press.

PY - 2023/11/9

Y1 - 2023/11/9

N2 - We investigate steady and oscillatory flow through a hexagonal close-packed arrangement of spheres in the framework of the volume-averaged momentum equation. We quantify the friction and pressure drag based on a direct numerical simulation dataset. Using the pressure decomposition of Graham (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 881, 2019), the pressure drag can be further split up into an accelerative, a viscous and a convective contribution. For the accelerative pressure, a closed-form expression can be given in terms of the potential flow solution. We investigate the contributions of the different drag components to the volume-averaged momentum budget and their Reynolds number scaling. For steady flow, we find that the friction and viscous pressure drag are proportional to at low Reynolds numbers and scale with for high Reynolds numbers. This is close to the steady laminar boundary layer scaling. For the convective pressure drag, we find a cubic scaling at low and a quadratic scaling at high Reynolds numbers. The Reynolds stresses have a minor contribution to the momentum budget. For oscillatory flow at low and medium Womersley numbers, the amplitudes of the drag components are similar to the steady cases at the same Reynolds number. At high Womersley numbers, the drag components behave quite differently and the friction and viscous pressure drag are relatively insignificant. The drag components are not in phase with the forcing and the superficial velocity; the phase lag increases with the Womersley number. This suggests that new models beyond the current quasisteady approaches need to be developed.

AB - We investigate steady and oscillatory flow through a hexagonal close-packed arrangement of spheres in the framework of the volume-averaged momentum equation. We quantify the friction and pressure drag based on a direct numerical simulation dataset. Using the pressure decomposition of Graham (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 881, 2019), the pressure drag can be further split up into an accelerative, a viscous and a convective contribution. For the accelerative pressure, a closed-form expression can be given in terms of the potential flow solution. We investigate the contributions of the different drag components to the volume-averaged momentum budget and their Reynolds number scaling. For steady flow, we find that the friction and viscous pressure drag are proportional to at low Reynolds numbers and scale with for high Reynolds numbers. This is close to the steady laminar boundary layer scaling. For the convective pressure drag, we find a cubic scaling at low and a quadratic scaling at high Reynolds numbers. The Reynolds stresses have a minor contribution to the momentum budget. For oscillatory flow at low and medium Womersley numbers, the amplitudes of the drag components are similar to the steady cases at the same Reynolds number. At high Womersley numbers, the drag components behave quite differently and the friction and viscous pressure drag are relatively insignificant. The drag components are not in phase with the forcing and the superficial velocity; the phase lag increases with the Womersley number. This suggests that new models beyond the current quasisteady approaches need to be developed.

KW - Navier-Stokes equations

KW - general fluid mechanics

KW - porous media

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85177994446&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1017/jfm.2023.798

DO - 10.1017/jfm.2023.798

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85177994446

SN - 0022-1120

VL - 974

JO - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

JF - Journal of Fluid Mechanics

M1 - A32

ER -