## Abstract

Computational heat transfer analysis often involves moving fluxes which induce traveling fronts of phase change coupled to one or more field variables. Examples are the transient simulation of melting, welding or of additive manufacturing processes, where material changes its state and the controlling fields are temperature and structural deformation. One of the challenges for a numerical computation of these processes is their multi-scale nature with a highly localized zone of phase transition which may travel over a large domain of a body. Here, a transient local adaptation of the approximation, with not only a refinement at the phase front, but also a de-refinement in regions, where the front has passed is of advantage because the de-refinement can assure a bounded number of degrees of freedom which is independent from the traveling length of the front. We present a computational model of this process which involves three novelties: (a) a very low number of degrees of freedom which yet yields a comparatively high accuracy. The number of degrees of freedom is, additionally, kept practically constant throughout the duration of the simulation. This is achieved by means of the multi-level hp-finite element method. Its exponential convergence is verified for the first time against a semi-analytic, three-dimensional transient linear thermal benchmark with a traveling source term which models a laser beam. (b) A hierarchical treatment of the state variables. To this end, the state of the material is managed on a separate, octree-like grid. This material grid may refine or coarsen independently of the discretization used for the temperature field. This methodology is verified against an analytic benchmark of a melting bar computed in three dimensions in which phase changes of the material occur on a rapidly advancing front. (c) The combination of these technologies to demonstrate its potential for the computational modeling of selective laser melting processes. To this end, the computational methodology is extended by the finite cell method which allows for accurate simulations in an embedded domain setting. This opens the new modeling possibility that neither a scan vector nor a layer of material needs to conform to the discretization of the finite element mesh but can form only a fraction within the discretization of the field- and state variables.

Originalsprache | Englisch |
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Seiten (von - bis) | 1483-1497 |

Seitenumfang | 15 |

Fachzeitschrift | Computers and Mathematics with Applications |

Jahrgang | 75 |

Ausgabenummer | 5 |

DOIs | |

Publikationsstatus | Veröffentlicht - 1 März 2018 |